biologic design

Biologic Design

Species Lists

A wide range wetland species and many bush willow cultivars are used within and around our WET Systems.

The species mix is dependent upon the type of wastewater. For example we would use a different species mix on a WET System purifying sewage (which is slightly alkaline) to that which we would use if the WET System were to purify cider mill effluent (which is very acidic).

As well as the many wetland marginals and willows we have also created Forest Gardens within some WET Systems, which are also planted with fruit and nut trees.

Wetland plant species

Alisma plantago-aquatica Water Plantain

Butomus umbellatus Flowering Rush

Callitriche spp. Water Starworts

Caltha palustris Marsh Marigold

Carex paniculata Great Tussock Sedge

Carex pendula Pendulous Sedge

Carex pseudocyperus Cyperous Sedge

Carex riparia Greater Pond Sedge

Carex sylvatica Wood-sedge

Carex remota Remote Sedge

Ceratophyllum demersum Rigid Hornwort

Cyperus longus Galingale

Deschampsia cespitosa Tufted Hair-grass

Eupatorium cannabinum Hemp Agrimony

Filipendula ulmaria Meadowsweet

Geranium phaeum Dusky Cranesbill

Geranium pratense Meadow Cranesbill

Geum rivale Water Avens

Glyceria maxima Reed Sweet Grass

Hottonia palustris Water-violet

Hydrocharis morsus-ranae Frogbit

Iris pseudacorus Yellow Flag Iris

Juncus spp. Rushes

Luzula sylvatica Great Wood Rush

Lychnis flos-cuculi Ragged Robin

Lysimachia vulgaris Yellow Loosestrife

Lythrum salicaria Purple Loosestrife

Mentha aquatica Water Mint

Menyanthes trifoliata Bogbean

Myosotis scorpioides Water Forget-me-not

Myriophyllum spicatum Spiked Water Milfoil

Nymphoides peltata Fringed Water Lily

Petasites hybridus Butterbur

Phalaris arundinacea Reed Canary Grass

Phragmites communis Common Reed

Potentilla palustris Marsh Cinquefoil

Pulicaria dysenterica Fleabane

Ranunculus lingua Greater Spearwort

Ranunculus flammula Lesser Spearwort

Schoenoplectus lacustris Clubrush

Scirpus sylvaticus Wood Clubrush

Scrophularia auriculata Water Figwort

Silene dioica Red Campion

Sparganium erectum Branched Burr-reed

Stratiotes aloides Water Soldier

Symphytum officinale Common Comfrey

Tanacetum vulgare Tansy

Tussilago farfara Coltsfoot

Typha latifolia Greater Reedmace

Veronica beccabunga Brooklime


As well as a range of biomass varieties we also use the following named osier types:

Salix alba ‘Chermesina’

Salix chinensis

Salix daphnoides ‘Aglaia’

Salix daphnoides ‘Continental Purple’

Salix daphnoides ‘Oxford Violet’

Salix daphnoides ‘Sinker’

Salix fragilis ‘Leegomey’

Salix x hertei ‘Reifenweide’

Salix mollisima ‘Hippophaefolia’

Salix mollisima ‘Hippophaefolia Stinchcombe’

Salix purpurea ‘Abbeys’

Salix purpurea ‘Continental Reeks’

Salix purpurea ‘Dark Dicks’

Salix purpurea ‘Dicky Meadows’

Salix purpurea ‘Goat’

Salix purpurea ‘Goldstones’

Salix purpurea ‘Green Dicks’

Salix purpurea ‘Helix’

Salix purpurea ‘Japonica’

Salix purpurea ‘Jagiellonka’

Salix purpurea ‘Lambertiana’

Salix purpurea ‘Nicholsonii Purpurescens’

Salix purpurea ‘Scharlentii Argensis’

Salix purpurea ‘Uralensis’

Salix x rubra ‘Eugenei’

Salix triandra ‘Black German’

Salix triandra ‘Noir de Villaine’

Salix triandra ‘Norfolk’

Salix triandra ’Whissander’

Salix viminalis ‘Black Hollander’

Salix viminalis ‘Black Osier’

Salix viminalis ‘Brown Merrin’

Salix viminalis ‘English Rod’

Salix viminalis ‘Green Gotz’

Salix viminalis ‘Reader’s Red’

Salix viminalis ‘Whipcord’

These willow cultivars have been used in basketry and hurdle making for many decades - some for centuries.


Constructed Wetland Ecosystems:

Integrated Wastewater Purification, Resource Production and
Habitat Creation.

Resilient and Regenerative Whole Site Water Reticulation Systems Design.

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